Anarcho-communism 's main theorist Peter Kropotkin , "was a child of the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution, and assumed that religion would be replaced by science and that the Church as well as the State would be abolished; he was particularly concerned with the development of a secular system of ethics which replaced supernatural theology with natural biology". Errico Malatesta and Carlo Cafiero , "the main founders of the Italian anarchist movement, both came from freethinking families and Cafiero was involved with the National Secular Society when he visited London during the s ".
In the United States, "freethought was a basically anti-christian , anti-clerical movement, whose purpose was to make the individual politically and spiritually free to decide for himself on religious matters. A number of contributors to Liberty were prominent figures in both freethought and anarchism.
A Liberal Theocracy: Philosophy, Theology, and Utah Constitutional Law
The church was viewed as a common ally of the state and as a repressive force in and of itself". In Europe, a similar development occurred in French and Spanish individualist anarchist circles. There will be an attack on institutionalized religion for the responsibility that it had in the past on negative developments, for its irrationality which makes it a counterpoint of philosophical and scientific progress. There will be a criticism of proselitism and ideological manipulation which happens on both believers and agnostics.
Anarchism has declared war on the pernicious influences which have so far prevented the harmonious blending of individual and social instincts, the individual and society. Religion, the dominion of the human mind; Property, the dominion of human needs; and Government, the dominion of human conduct, represent the stronghold of man's enslavement and all the horrors it entails. Chinese anarchists led the opposition to Christianity in the early 20th century, but the most prominent of them, Li Shizeng , made it clear that he opposed not only Christianity but all religion as such.
When he became president of the Anti-Christian Movement of he told the Beijing Atheists' League: "Religion is intrinsically old and corrupt: history has passed it by" and asked "Why are we of the twentieth century Religious anarchists view organised religion mostly as authoritarian and hierarchical that has strayed from its humble origins as Peter Marshall explains:. The original message of the great religious teachers to live a simple life , to share the wealth of the earth, to treat each other with love and respect, to tolerate others and to live in peace invariably gets lost as worldly institutions take over.
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Religious leaders, like their political counterparts, accrue power to themselves, draw up dogmas , and wage war on dissenters in their own ranks and the followers of other religions. They seek protection from temporal rulers, bestowing on them in return a supernatural legitimacy and magical aura. They weave webs of mystery and mystification around naked power; they join the sword with the cross and the crescent. As a result, in nearly all cases organised religions have lost the peaceful and tolerant message of their founding fathers, whether it be Buddha , Jesus or Mohammed.
Many Westerners who call themselves Buddhists regard the Buddhist tradition, in contrast to most other world faiths, as nontheistic , humanistic and experientially-based. Most Buddhist schools, they point out, see the Buddha as the embodied proof that transcendence and ultimate happiness is possible for all, without exception.
They note that Buddhist scriptures such as the Kalama Sutta have an inherently libertarian emphasis, placing a priority on the questioning of all authority and dogma, with properly informed personal choice as final arbiter. The Indian revolutionary and self-declared atheist Har Dayal , much influenced by Marx and Bakunin , who sought to expel British rule from the subcontinent, was a striking instance of someone who in the early 20th century tried to synthesize anarchist and Buddhist ideas.
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Having moved to the United States , in he went so far as to establish in Oakland the Bakunin Institute of California, which he described as "the first monastery of anarchism". According to some, Christianity began primarily as a pacifist and anarchist movement. Jesus is said, in this view, to have come to empower individuals and free people from an oppressive religious standard in the Mosaic law ; he taught that the only rightful authority was God, not Man, evolving the law into the Golden Rule see also liberal Christianity.
According to Christian anarchists , there is only one source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable, the authority of God as embodied in the teachings of Jesus. Christian anarchists believe that freedom from government or Church is justified spiritually and will only be guided by the grace of God if Man shows compassion to others and turns the other cheek when confronted with violence.
Review of Black Divinity () — Foreword Reviews
As per Christian communism , anarchism is not necessarily opposed by the Catholic Church. Regulating the economy solely by centralized planning perverts the basis of social bonds; regulating it solely by the law of the marketplace fails social justice". The Quaker church, or the Religious Society of Friends, is organized along anarchist lines. All decisions are made locally in a community of equals where every members voice has equal weight.
While there are no formal linkages between Quakerism and anarchism and Quakers as a whole hold a wide variety of political opinions, the long tradition of Quaker involvement in social-justice work and similar outlooks on how power should be structured and decisions should be reached has led to significant crossover in membership and influence between Christian anarchists and Quakers. The Quaker influence was particularly pronounced in the anti-nuclear movement of the s and in the North American anti-globalization movement , both of which included many thousands of anarchists and self-consciously adopted secular, consensus-based aspects of Quaker decision making.
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One religion known as Dysnomianism seeks to fuse anarchism with religion and occult practices as its primary text The Chronicles of Anarchy released on The Pirate Bay presents a broad overview of the connections between anarchism and various traditional spiritual philosophies from around the world, especially those with a magickal and occult leaning. This book attempts to blend all the most anarchist aspects of world spirituality into one coherent practical anarchist spirituality which sees Dysnomia, the Greek goddess of lawlessness as its central deity.
The discovery of the ancient Gnostic texts at Nag Hammadi coupled with the writings of the science fiction writer Philip K. Dick , especially with regard to his concept of the Black Iron Prison , has led to the development of Anarcho-Gnosticism. Black Cloud Eddie Spears , a young Navajo man, must take a journey of personal growth to prepare himself for a chance at boxing in the Olympics.
When Eddie Rick Schroder returns to town with the rodeo and wants to rekindle his relationship with Black Cloud's girlfriend, Sammi Julia Jones , Black Cloud confronts him and runs into trouble with the sheriff Tim Read more. Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. His son, Leon Black, is a founding member of private equity firm Apollo Management.
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