Guide Chapter 039, Anatomy, Physiology, and Behavior (American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine)

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Delcambre, Lawrence W.

Laboratory Animal Science Overview

Whalen, Christianne Magee. VCA page view and course performance data were exported into Microsoft Excel and immediately scrubbed of all subject identifiers. These data support our initial hypotheses, suggesting that early and frequent student use of VCA in undergraduate anatomy is positively correlated with student performance outcomes. The combined effects of endotoxins with herbicides, which likely occur in agricultural settings, are poorly understood.

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Microarray data were revalidated with qPCR and immunohistochemistry. African rhinoceros are poached for their horns using indiscriminate and aggressive methods. Rhinoceros that survive these attacks often have severe facial trauma and treatment is limited by a lack of understanding and published information of the normal anatomy.

This study was performed to investigate and describe the anatomy of the most commonly injured area of the head of the white rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum.

Prior to gross dissection, each head was imaged via computed tomography. A bandsaw was used to section the cadavers in transverse, dorsal and midline planes. For each section of cadaver head, the surfaces were mapped to determine related paranasal sinus and nasal cavity spaces. Polypropylene catheters and a flexible video endoscope were used to investigate cavities, channels and communications within and between paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity. This nasoconchal sinus communicates via a relatively large opening with the middle nasal meatus of the nasal cavity.

An awareness of this combined sinus space and its single communicating pathway will assist with accurate assessment and treatment of trauma affecting the dorsal facial region of the white rhinoceros. The specific function of the nasoconchal sinus remains unknown. Please note, this study has been published in Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 49 2 —, Water treadmills WTs are increasingly being used for the rehabilitation of equine athletes.

Four horses were utilized in this controlled, randomized pilot study. A highspeed camera was used to track forelimb markers of horses on land and in the WT. Test 1: Horses were walked on sand footing. Test 2: Horses were walked on a WT. Test 3: Horses were again walked on sand immediately following the WT. All tests were performed at the same speed. Surface type and water height significantly altered joint ROM via an increase in flexion at the carpus and elbow, with no change in extension. This study shows that while equine gait in the WT is influenced by water height, this gait does not change after prolonged WT conditioning.

Cultural changes and new directions in medical education have modified the role of dissection in teaching anatomy. Even though most veterinary students realize the value of dissection, they cannot cope with the competing demands of other subjects added to time needed for dissection, often avoiding completion of the needed dissection. This adversely affects learning. Dissection in an anatomy laboratory has unique value that is hard to surpass and can't be replaced by any other educational tools. The purpose of this study was to learn about student perception of the assessment's design and to evaluate its effectiveness in meeting learning outcomes.

The second part is group peer evaluation. The grading scale was set by the instructor, who was always available to resolve disputes. Students were surveyed to obtain their opinions. Students reported that the design was helpful in understanding the materials, drove a deep approach to learning, and enhanced teamwork while reducing stress to a minimum. I recommend using this specific design of assessment as part of anatomy education in veterinary and medical schools. Spermatogenesis is a complex process of germ cell proliferating and differentiation that requires extensive interactions of various cell types, hormones, and growth factors, making it difficult to be replicated in vitro.

The objective of the present study was to establish a 2D cell culture system to generate mature male germ cells from neonatal SSC. Before starting treatments, testis tissue biopsies can be collected and cryopreserved for future use to uphold biological fatherhood.


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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of retinol on in vitro spermatogenesis using immature mouse spermatogonial stem cells SSC. We concluded that supplementation of 0. Nongnuch Inpanbutr 1 , Nathanael V. Hopkins 1 , Jay Hsiao 2 , Sarah E. Mazur 1 , Kyra D. Broomfield 1 , Cheryl A. Theilel 1 , Ashley A. Miller 2 , Alexis H. Duffy 2. Educational research describes transformative ways videos can affect learning, in that audiovisual cues in videos help retain and recall new knowledge.

Dissection videos ranked highest among positive comments in student evaluations for AU Anatomy course. Survey data were collected from AU Gross Anatomy students on their use of five fully narrated videos of complicated anatomical structures, including pharynx, larynx, pericardium and pleura, brachial plexus, and abdominal viscera. Before watching, students took a survey Pre regarding their perception of their ability to identify and their knowledge of the subjects; after watching, students took the same survey Post. For pharynx, This preliminary observation is encouraging and will result in further studies that attempt to link reported perception of ability with objective data, such as exam performance.

We obtained funding to develop additional videos of canine dissection, which we plan to share under open licensing and solicit feedback for future development. Nongnuch Inpanbutr 1 , Rondo P. Vitamin D research presented mechanisms of action and has been a continued controversy regarding health benefits associated with it as well as appropriate levels. Aside from vitamin D's classical calcium homeostasis role, the active form of vitamin D3, calcitriol, has been implicated in numerous health areas.

Included in these are immunity and cancer. Calcitriol plays a role in both innate and adaptive immunity. We had previously reported the response of canine bladder transitional carcinoma cells to calcitriol and the mechanism involved. This study is to determine whether calcitriol elicit protective effects on normal cells when insulted by oxidative stress.

This study was performed in vitro with normal canine lymph node cells K9LN from the established cell line. Cell growth was determined using a cell proliferation assay.

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  7. Cell types were characterized using a combination of analyses including immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Calcitriol exhibited protective and proliferative effects on K9LN cell proliferation after irradiation.

    Lab Animal Sciences 2014

    All categories of calcitriol pretreated K9LN cells have less cell death when compared to untreated cells. The gene expression results support a protective role of calcitriol under oxidative stress conditions. Cell types composed of fibroblast and lymphocytes. Calcitriol elicits a protective and proliferative effects on normal K9LN cells when insulted by oxidative stress with radiation. To streamline the process, iPad employing the ExamSoft ES application was introduced into anatomy laboratory exams in spring and student engagement with the technology was assessed by survey.

    Students were issued with a personal iPad on entry into the school and these were used in a first semester anatomy laboratory exam. Immediately after the exam, students completed a Likert scale survey containing three questions addressing iPad use and eight questions regarding the ES application. Qualitative feedback was also obtained through free comments. The resulting quantitative data were statistically analyzed for proof of normal distribution, as well as ANOVA tested for the null hypothesis that there are no differences between positive, negative and indifferent statements.

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    Qualitative feedback was used to identify perceived risks. Positive comments emphasized ease of navigation and editing answers, potential for faster grading, and environmental sustainability. Negative comments associated with iPad use highlighted use of privacy screens, difficulty in note taking, risk of dropping the device, need for technical ability or preparation, and concerns about hardware or software failure.

    The overall positive student feedback regarding the ES application experience demonstrates engagement with this technology, while subjective comments highlighted student concerns. Student compliance with use of iPads is less positive.