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The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. This research examines the use of financial mechanisms to impose controls while facilitating blame avoidance by public office-holders.

A qualitative historical examination is used to examine legislation designed to prevent Radio Caroline, a pirate radio station, from broadcasting into Britain in the s. In addition, Radio Caroline played the type of rock music the British Government sought to suppress because it represented the undesirable side of youth culture. It demonstrates the use of financial control mechanisms to mask the strategies of governments. Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Find out about Lean Library here. Skip to main content.

The swashbuckling rock rebels of Radio Caroline | The Independent

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Article Information Volume: 22 issue: 3, page s : Article first published online: January 3, ; Issue published: August 1, Email: andrew. Abstract Full Text Abstract. Keywords blame avoidance , government accounting , pirate radio , Radio Caroline , scapegoating. Sign Out. Email required Password required Remember me Forgotten your password? Need to activate? Institutional Access does not have access to this content.

Open Athens. Purchase Content 24 hours online access to download content. Subscribe to this journal. Recommend to your library. Rent with DeepDyve. Rent Article. Your Access Options. Forgotten your password? Article available in:. Vol 22, Issue 3, Radio after the White Paper. Whatever happened to those villains of the Indian seas? The happy retirement of the Madagascar International Journal of Maritime History.

Chapman, Robert, 1954-

Crossref Matthew Hale and more The Economic History Review Nov Accounting history in diverse settings - an introduction Alessandro Lai and more Accounting History Aug He was some writer: he published more than 40 novels and numerous radio plays between the age of 56 and his death 32 years later, in His luck ran out and the Russians left him nailed to a kitchen table in a farmhouse.

Practised torturers, they made sure he had a chance to survive and take the story back to his fellow agents. The war never ended for him. His children were kidnapped and he pursued them to South America. Ted never told me what happened after that. They were big news and big business. Benn clearly opposed the radio ships because they represented swashbuckling , unregulated capitalism. But it took him a while to build the political support for legislation.

His task was ultimately made easier by some serious lawlessness that seemed to underline the perils of broadcasters operating in international waters. First, there were the deaths of the owner and two of the staff of the fort-based Radio Invicta when a supply boat sank in the River Thames. They launched Radio Sutch from a Thames estuary fort, essentially as a publicity campaign to promote his music.

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When Sutch went back to performing, Calvert got serious about broadcasting and relaunched the station as Radio City. In the s, the long disused structures created the opportunity for low-budget radio stations, whereas ships required substantial investment and expensive servicing. So, in its heyday, the erratic and relatively weak transmissions of Radio City were coining it. But, by then, Reg Calvert was dead. It ended with year-old Calvert being shot at the Essex home of Major Oliver Smedley, a former Radio Atlanta director and would-be politician.

Smedley was charged not with murder but manslaughter. But, even on this lesser charge, he was acquitted. It was, to say the least, a surprising verdict. It seemed to be getting dangerous. It was one of three forts built for occupation by the British navy. The fort had been towed into position where the base was flooded allowing it to rest on the seabed.

Throughout World War 2, it had been occupied by up to British troops and used as an anti-aircraft base. It was vacated in The Roughs Tower fort remained derelict until Radio Caroline took up its anchorage in He constructed a helipad and secretly planned to move Radio Caroline to it. In so many ways, those plans to move from an expensive-to-maintain ship to a much larger, permanent fort were inspired. But the secret got out. The tussle became serious and involved guns, flame-throwers, grenades — and court cases which ultimately confirmed that the fort was, indeed, beyond UK jurisdiction.

But the legislation which targeted UK subjects involved in broadcasting on the high seas would have outlawed that too. That was almost 40 years ago. Bates died in after decades fighting the UK government in the courts, and violently repelling a succession of invaders. But the authorities have sort of ignored Sealand, hoping vainly its occupants would go bust or go away. The fort has sometimes hosted internet server companies, and has been touted as a base for a hotel and health farm. The dreams keep coming. It has never been used for broadcasting and as a result of the extended territorial waters is now actually within UK jurisdiction.

But the British government has learned to leave it alone. The story of how a collection of old ships and decaying wartime sea forts managed to break the BBC radio monopoly — and give British airtime to the s pop music that was captivating the world — is a story of its time. The two ships were forcibly towed away in March by the Dutch company which had been responsible for supplying them amid stories of unpaid debts.

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The former Radio Caroline South ship returned a few years later but finally sank in a North Sea gale. The s saw the station resume broadcasts from a new ship, the Ross Revenge. But the financial torture of working around the UK legislation by supplying the radio ship, expensively, from far-flung European ports was all over again by Radio Caroline has since been revived by enthusiasts, first via satellite and now as an online channel, with plans to revive it as a legally-licensed UK local radio station.

But only the name is the same. And fellow Beatle George Harrison too flirted with the idea of resurrecting the station.

The plans, based on airborne transmissions to US troops then taking place in Vietnam, were later exposed as a publicity stunt — or at least a speculative attempt to attract backers for what would have been the riskiest broadcasting project of all. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title.