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Asia 1. Condition see all Condition. This method of assessment can be surprisingly accurate but should always be backed up by more detailed methods of cost appraisal. Chapter 3 contains elemental cost analyses of 32 different types of buildings. These analyses provide data on the percentage and cost breakdown of 24 elements for each building and are a useful tool in identifying imbalances between the elements of different buildings. Where possible, composite rates are displayed that combine several different descriptions to provide a single rate for separate but linked activities.

For example, excavation, concrete and brickwork up to DPC level are combined to produce a single linear metre rate for strip foundations. The use of composite rates can save valuable time in the preparation of the cost plan. Where item descriptions do not lend themselves to be combined with others they are listed as principal rates.

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Chapter 5 provides indices reflecting historical costs of construction costs and tender prices. Chapter 6 deals with property insurance and contains an example of re-building costs for insurance purposes. Chapter 7 sets out the cost of employing professional advisors whose fees are now negotiable and not mandatory. Chapter 8 contains information on life cycle costing which is now recognised as an important factor in the assessment of overall construction costs. Chapter 9 includes lists of useful addresses. Chapter 10 contains information that may be useful when preparing a first stage estimate.

At this stage of a project the information available is limited and, although the brief from a client can be minimal, an approximation of costs must still be prepared. Here is a simple example. It is proposed to construct a single story distribution warehouse shell only size 6, square metres in the South West of England. An outline plan has been prepared showing parking areas and a road layout.

It is known that local contractors are operating at full capacity so tender levels are expected to be high. The work would commence in April with a nine month construction period. They also exclude any development grants or subsidies that may be available in the area involved. They are expressed in a range and intended to provide a broad indication of the cost of the work.

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They are expressed in a range and are intended to provide a broad indication of the cost of the work. This method of assessing construction costs is usually the first step in the process of the consideration of the viability of project. The building work is comprised of 33 different types in 8 categories, each building broken down into 24 cost elements. The cost data should be used with caution because imbalances can occur in the use of elemental costs in isolation. The figures are an amalgam of the costs for a range of buildings in each category and represent a broad indication of costs rather than an accurate statement of detail.

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Nevertheless, the information provided should be an invaluable tool in assessing the relative values of elements in different buildings. The tables will be particularly useful in the early cost planning process and also in the evaluation of tenders.

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The costs cover building work only and exclude the costs of drainage, external works, contingency sums, professional fees and VAT, Due to rounding off there may be some minor discrepancies in individual elemental costs and totals. The figures are based on costs prevailing in the first quarter of The following buildings are included. This entails taking off rough quantities and applying global rates to produce an approximate cost of the project.

These rates are the result of combining various item descriptions and costs into what are called composite rates. Not all items can be combined with others to provide composite rates so principal rates are also included if their value is significant to the cost plan. The following rates are presented under headings in the same order as the elements in Chapter 3. The costs for roof coverings are given separately.

dionamoterla.tk Flat roofs Reinforced concrete suspended slabs including formwork mm thick m2 Reinforced woodwool slab decking mm thick covered with two layer bituminous roofing m Insulation quilt mm thick m2 8. The rates are based on sloping areas.

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Eaves, fascias and verges Painted softwood fascia mm high and 16mm thick softwood soffit mm wide m Rainwater goods The following costs include for all fittings. Rainwater pipes Cast Iron 75mm m Aluminium profiled cladding with pre-painted finishm Vinyl coved skirtings 77mm high m2 5. Traps Polypropylene S trap nr Biogradable unseeded erosion control mats mm wide fixed with pins to prepared ground Eromat Light m2 5. Roads Excavate for and lay road base, tarmacadam sub-base and wearing course, precast concrete kerbs both sides, road width 5m m This is mainly due to the freedom of civil engineering estimators to prepare bids to reflect their view of the timing and sequence of the works that is usually not available to their building counterparts.

So when preparing first stage estimates in civil engineering, it is important that the level of the General Items is assessed first so that the level of pricing of the individual rates can be adjusted accordingly. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips.