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Software which uses a computer's soundcard device to provide voice input and output is known as a Softphone. Several hardware devices exist to provide VoIP telephony. ATA devices provide standard phone ports, allowing standard phone handsets and other devices such as fax machines to utilize VoIP services. Hardware phones generally provide a better quality VoIP experience than Softphones; however the convenience of not requiring extra hardware, and the smaller expense involved in Softphone products make softphones a popular choice.

A popular open source softphone that runs on both Windows and Linux platforms is ekiga which supports both H. Xten X-Lite is another popular free Softphone which provides all necessary features to initiate and receive phone calls via SIP.

IPv6: Take advantage of the next generation of the Internet: HP feature story (October )

A list of some of the softphones available can be found on voip-info. This chapter deals with the complex world of VoIP gateway systems. These systems are responsible for providing some amount of call control and routing from VoIP phone devices.

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Each of these systems is responsible for receiving calls from a VoIP handset, ATA or softphone device via a supported VoIP protocol, consulting a dial-plan or other call routing table, and correctly routing the call. Other features made available by some or all of these gateways include:. Call Accounting - Providing tracking of calls via the gateway, including reports and cost controls.

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  • Complex Dialplans - Most dialplans configured on simple devices such as ATAs and softphones only allow for a very straightforward dialplan configuration. Using a VoIP gateway such as Asterisk, factors such as time of day, or even values obtained from external sources can be used to determine which path a call should take.

    They additionally provide the dialplan configuration to determine which calls should route via IP, and which should utilize a card.

    It is important when selecting gateway software to evaluate which devices they support, and ensure yours is listed. Some devices for example, Cisco line cards may require the vendor's specific implementation of VoIP gateway for any support at all. Internal Numbering - Some gateways offer the ability to provide internal extension numbering for clients, allowing one VoIP device to dial another device registered on your local gateway using a short internal extension number.

    Enhanced security

    Generally, if you require an advanced configuration such as advanced call accounting for billing, cost controls, complex dialplans, or the ability to call between extensions, you should implement a gateway solution. The project is sponsored by Digium , a PBX hardware manufacturer. In addition to the above, Asterisk is able to provide IVR functions, allowing interactive voice prompts, call queuing, and many many advanced call routing features. In all, Asterisk is a remarkably full featured commercial-grade PBX system available free of charge.

    It has an architecture designed for scalability and flexibility and high performances. SER history spans back to the previous century.

    SER's particular strength is its performance SER runs well even under heavy load caused by large subscriber populations or abnormal operational conditions , flexibility SER's genuine configuration language and module interface allow high degree of customization and interoperability tested and operated against tens of SIP products over the years, including but not limited to Microsoft, Cisco, Mitel, snom, Pingtel, Siemens, xten, and many others. Yate is a next-generation telephony engine; while currently focused on Voice over Internet Protocol VoIP , its power lies in its ability to be easily extended.

    Voice, video, data and instant messaging can all be unified under Yate's flexible routing engine, maximizing communications efficiency and minimizing infrastructure costs for businesses. Erlang was developed by Ericsson to program ordinary telephone switches, with the goal of making a programming system fault-tolerant and robust.

    Particular attention should be given to ensuring that emergency calls on VoIP lines are handled correctly. In some cases, it may not be possible to provide useful or reliable emergency service via VoIP services. In this case, it may be possible to offload emergency calls to a landline service. If reliable emergency service is not available, the handset or VoIP device should clearly be marked with a warning.

    Some VoIP providers allow emergency calls to be routed via their service; however this is only of use if you are within an area covered by the receiving emergency call centre. Additionally, a lack of bandwidth or Internet service or a power loss can lead to loss of emergency service via telephone. If a functioning landline handset is nearby, it is advisable to attach a notice to the VoIP device directing emergency calls to the landline. It is much easier for emergency services to assist if they have information on your location which is generally not available via VoIP calls.

    Where calls are handled by a gateway administered by yourself or your organisation, and the ability to route certain calls via landline exists, the dialplan for your VoIP gateway should immediately route emergency calls via the landline, and where possible, any active conversations should be dropped if there are not sufficient lines to handle the call.

    It is important to find out whether your VoIP provider s offer emergency numbers, what areas they are able to cover and whether they are able to provide enhanced emergency services such as e initiatives which allow providers to transmit information on subscribers to call centres. IVR applications are automated response units which receive input from the user traditionally in the form of DTMF and allow the user to progress along a pre-set interactive path. For example, a menuing system where the IVR may announce Press 1 for Sales, 2 for Marketting and then await user input.

    The following section is quite technical, as it deals with complicated infrastructure and the integration of VoIP into core internet technologies. These records are stored in a hierarchical tree beneath the e Records within the e Much like the in-addr. The agency is then responsible for further smaller delegations where necessary.

    As a result, it is unlikely that individuals or small businesses will have access to provide ENUM records for their telephone numbers. It also stands to reason that telephone companies would be hesitant to allow telephone calls destined to their customers to instead terminate over the Internet, as much of a phone company's revenue would be derived from call termination fees, charged to carriers for calls terminating on a company's network. This is unfortunate for end users. For this reason, several free ENUM databases have been created to allow users to share alternate IP-based paths to their phone numbers.

    Most ENUM aware gateways will allow additional 'search domains' to be configured, providing access to these unofficial databases.


    Voice over IPv6: Architectures for Next Generation VoIP Networks

    If a malicious or unauthenticated entry is added, an attacker can direct calls for a phone number to an arbitrary VoIP gateway. Consider the example of rival businesses. If Business A were tech-savvy and entered their competitor's number into a public directory, directing calls to their own VoIP gateway, any calls placed via a VoIP gateway configured to query that directory would be directed to Business A's phone, rather than the intended recipient, Business B.

    Some of these directories require voice verification of ownership when you register phone numbers. Others do not require verification or have dispute resolution policies which deal with disputes on a case-by-case basis. Another less serious but still important consideration is the possibility that your information will be harvested from the database, or sold by the database owner. ENUM information may be valuable to advertisers or phone spammers, as it would provide them with a list of valid phone numbers, and allow them to call for free via IP. Many ENUM trial registries are becoming available.

    Most of these registries are regional, and often are limited by telephony provider, limited number of trial participants, or a trial fee. As this application comes into its own so does the new and improved internet protocol referred to as IPv6. The current protocol for the internet is IPv4.


    The problem with IPv4 is that it does not have nearly enough space for the growing population of cyberspace and is increasingly unsecure. IPv6 gives far more unique addresses for users and is much more secure and robust. This pairing of technology is referred to as VoIPv6. This is the future of internet telephony, and it is this relationship that the content of this book evolves around.